Main page > Prussia > Cities
 What's new
 Books and Videos

Polska wersja
Polska wersja
Deutsche Version
Deutsche Version

Go: Up Back Forward


   Frombork was found about 1278, it has been described in documents of bishop Gerko Fleming (or Henry Fleminga). He moved the capital of diocese to this city, called the City of Our Mistress (Castrum Domine Nostre), after the invasion and destruction of the cathedral in Braniewo. Soon after there was a cathedral of Wniebowziecia Matki Bozej (eng. taking of mother of God into heaven) built.

   The town received city's rights with privileges of Lübeck Law on July 8th, 1310, granted by bishop Eberhard from Nysa. The city was location in place of pagan Prussian settlement, and was built on a base of a rectangle with marketplace and city hall in the middle, and a church of St. Nicolas in northeastern end.

   In 1329-1388 the cathedral made of brick was built located at the hill in south of the city. In the beginning of XV century it had gained defensive walls with towers. From then on, the Cathedral Hill of the only building with made of brick walls, was protecting local people from aggressors. The city also had two gates: Mlynska (Windmill's) and Kowalska (Blacksmith's), though which the road from Elblag to Braniewo was going. The city had also two hospitals: St. George's, existing since XIV century until XIX century, and Holy Spirit's with St. Ann's chapel, funded by Warmian clergy council.

   Local inhabitants' occupation was mainly sea fishing and cultivation. Due to lack of running sweet water, the canal delivering it from Bauda River was built. It was impressing engineering solution for the time. Since XV century there was a fishery harbor in the city. It also made a trade with Gdansk possible. The port had a watchtower being at the same time a lighthouse. In 1564 the fish market was built.

   The city suffered greatly from wars on those lands. In 1414, during Polish - Teutonic Order war, the city was plundered and burned. During Thirteen Years' War, in 1454 the hill with the cathedral was conquered by Czech army under Jan Skalski, and under his command it was successfully defended until the end of the war. The city was once more destroyed in 1520 during the war with prince Albreht of Branderburg.

   The city became famous because of the stay in 1512-1516 and 1522-1543 of worldwide famous astronomer and economist Nicolas Copernicus. Here he hag guests from Western Europe. Here also, in local cathedral, rest the remains of the genius that died in 1543.

   In 1626 the Swedes, lead by Gustav Adolf, marched into the town, plundering and conquering the city and the cathedral, looting valuable art, including manuscripts of Nicolas Copernicus. During so-called Swedish Deluge (1655-1660) and the Northern War (1701-1701) the city was again sewerly damaged. The next - Napoleonian war (1807-1809) didn't spare the city.

   Economic growth was brought to the city by building a railroad in 1889, connecting Elblag and Braniewo.

   During the World War II the city was damaged in approximately 80%, mainly during Russian offensive. After the war Frombork had belonged to Poland.

   The city has many relic buildings: the cathedral buildings on the hill, with cathedral within its walls, the bishops' palace (today museum), bell tower (today planetarium), founded by Michal Radziejowski, built in 1685-1687, also a tower called Copernicus' Tower, built in XV century and others. Behind the cathedral's walls there are also many houses from XVIII century, the new bishop's palace built in 1841 and fishermen's buildings.

Marek Januszewski

   See also: Old postcards

Go: Up Back Forward

Copyright © 2001-2009 Marek Januszewski. All rights reserved.

Valid HTML 4.01! Valid CSS! Cheap and
reliable web hosting